"Today the subcommittee will hear testimony on the continued and
widespread persistence of torture in the world today and on what
steps the United States and other free and civilized nations can do
"Three of our witnesses are themselves victims of torture: a native of
Uganda who suffered at the hands of the Id Amin regime, a Tibetan
physician who was tortured by the Chinese Communists, and an American
who became a torture victim in Saudi Arabia after he had a falling-out
with his employer, the Saudi government.
"As we begin this hearing, I should say that I am proud to be the
principal along with the Subcommittee's ranking member, Congressman
Tom Lantos, and 48 other co-sponsors, of H.R. 1416, the Torture
victims Relief Act of 1995. The Act contains a number of important
provisions designed to assist torture victims.
"First, implementation of the provision of the Convention Against
Torture that prohibits the involuntary return of any person to a
country in which there are substantial grounds for believing that he
or she would be in danger of being subjected to torture. Because the
United States has ratified the Convention, this provision is already
binding on the United States as a matter of international law but
it has not yet been incorporated into our domestic law.
"Second, expedited processing for asylum applicants who present
credible claims of subjection to torture, a presumption that such
applicants shall not be detained during the pendency of their asylum
claims, and a provision for taking into account the effects of torture
in the adjudication of such claims.
"Third, specialized training for consular, immigration, and asylum
personnel in the identification of evidence of torture, techniques for
interviewing torture victims, and related subjects.
"Fourth, a Center for Disease Control study with respect to torture
victims currently in the United States and the recovery services
available to such persons.
"Fifth, authorization of grants for rehabilitation services for
victims of torture and related purposes.
"Sixth, authorization of a voluntary contribution from the United
States to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture in
the amount of $1.5 million for FY 1996 and $3 million for FY 1997.
"Finally, the bill contains an expression of the sense of the Congress
that the United States shall use its voice and vote in the United
Nations to support the investigation and elimination of the practices
prohibited by the Convention Against Torture.
Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee for providing
me the opportunity to testify before you today.
My name is Tenzin Choedrak and I am a practitioner of traditional
Tibetan medicine. For 17 years of my life, I had to undergo different
forms of torture by China's occupying forces in Tibet. The fact that
I have survived to tell this tale before this august body is not
because the torture that was inflicted upon me was mild. Rather, my
religious practice and my medical knowledge helped me to overcome my
It is nearly 20 years since I regained my freedom, but the memory of
my prison days is still fresh in my mind. Although I live in freedom
and dignity now, I am very mindful of the fact that the suffering that
I endured many years ago is still occurring to thousands of Tibetans
A number of human rights organizations, including the International
Campaign for Tibet, have documented that torture continues to be
routinely practiced against Tibet's political prisoners. Common
techniques include regular beatings, the shackling of hands and feet,
the use of thumb locks and the application of electric cattle prods to
sensitive parts of the body, including the mouth and genitals.
Ill-treatment of Tibetans occurs even before they reach the prisons
and detention centers. When a prisoner is taken to the police station
on the day of detention, it is not uncommon for him or her to be
beaten and tortured. In fact, new techniques are now being used
against these newly detained Tibetans, techniques which leave no marks
on the body. Such methods include being placed under extremely cold
conditions and then being abruptly subjected to hot conditions, being
made to stand barefoot for over 24 hours at a time, and being
interrogated for 12 to 24 hours without food or water.
In recent years, there have been twelve documented cases of
individuals who have died from ill-treatment and lack of medical care
inside prisons and detention centers, and it is suspected that there
are dozens more. One recent case, a twenty-four year old nun,
Gyaltsen Kelsang, died in 1995 after she was beaten in prison and was
forced to continue to perform hard labor without being provided
I have also treated torture victims myself, including a 24 year old
nun from Lhasa, Tibet's capital, who escaped in 1989 after having been
subjected to sticks being forced into her genitals while in
incarceration. Another 24 year old nun, Soyang, who is my niece,
required treatment for heart problems when she arrived into exile in
1993 because the Chinese had let dogs loose to attack her. This year,
I treated a monk whose back was very swollen from severe beatings he
received while in prison in Tibet. I also treated Palden Gyatso, who
testified before this Subcommittee last year on the torture he
received by Chinese guards in Tibet. In addition, I know of many
women in nunneries in Dharamsala, the seat of the Tibetan
Government-in-Exile, who have suffered torture. At the inpatient
department of the medical institute in Dharamsala, where I work, we
have on average of 5 patients in our beds who need medical attention
for torture wounds.
My own ordeal began on March 10, 1959 when the people of Lhasa rose up
in unison against China's ten-year old occupation of Tibet. This
uprising was ruthlessly suppressed by Chinese forces. In the
subsequent days, there were constant sounds of artillery as Chinese
military personnel bombarded Lhasa. Being one of the personal
physicians of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, I was then residing in the
residential complex of the Dalai Lama's parents.
On the afternoon of March 22, Chinese troops arrived at our compound.
Without warning, they started shooting; four people in our house who
had gone out to meet the soldiers were killed immediately. The
soldiers, who were armed with machine guns, then stormed the building,
shooting recklessly and ransacking the entire area. Everyone living
in the compound, including myself, was rounded up in one windowless
room on the first floor.
The next evening, we were informed that we were being selected for
"studies", what we believed to be a euphemism for execution. We were
then led out of the compound to the outskirts of the city and placed
in a small room of a private house. For the next two days, we did not
get any food or water. On the second night we were led from the room
to the local People's Liberation Army (PLA) headquarters and kept in a
maximum security prison there. I was manacled in foot-and-a-half-long
leg irons. Each time I took a step the irons pinched my skin, giving
As the days went by, I began to witness gruesome sessions of
"Thamzing", which were methods of interrogation combined with force
that were peculiar to Communist Chinese officials. One such method
involved tying the prisoner in such a way as to give him maximum
suffering. For example, a rope was first laid across the front of the
prisoner's chest and then spiraled down each arm. The wrists were
then tied together and pulled backwards over the man's head. Next the
rope-ends were drawn under either armpit, threaded through the loop on
the chest and pulled abruptly down. Immediately the shoulders turned
in their sockets, wrenching the prisoner in a grisly contortion
without strangling him. The pain from this torture was so great that
a man would invariably lose control of his bowels and bladder.
A few months after my arrest, I was put on trial and accused of being
an accomplice in the uprising against the Chinese invaders. As the
trial progressed, I began to realize that I was being singled out for
a specific purpose: to malign and defame His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
For instance, my questioners told me at one time that the way to avoid
Thamzing would be to confirm that the Dalai Lama was a thief and a
murderer, posing as a religious man, and that he had an incestuous
relationship with his sister.
After a few days of interrogation, I was then subjected to the first
of a series of Thamzing. It began one morning with the PLA commander
asking my fellow prisoners to "question Tenzin Choedrak very closely.
You must find the truth." As one prisoner rose up asking me to tell
everything, others grabbed me, tying my arms across a long board in a
variation of the method that had previously been used. Trailing the
rope off either end my arms were pulled tight even while I was asked
to denounce the Dalai Lama. When I refused, the prisoners, under the
watchful eyes of the guards, started beating me, pulling my hairs and
ears, spitting on my face and pummeling my head. The pain in my arm
was so great that I began to scream and it was only when I collapsed
that the guards called for a halt. However, the beating resumed after
a short rest and this pattern was repeated throughout that morning. In
all, this session lasted four hours.
I was then removed from the cell and placed in solitary confinement.
Of course, I was too weak to be aware of the shift in my location. It
was only when I recovered that I found myself in a dark room, four by
eight feet in dimension, with a small, barred window, high in one
wall, and a six-inch-square hole for receiving food. On the mud floor
lay a straw mat, a discarded PLA overcoat and a bucket for relieving
myself. I was to spend the next four months the remainder of the
summer of 1959 in this isolated area.
My daily routine included thinking over my "crimes" for the entire
day. The door of the food portal (I only received a small steamed bun
with some rice and vegetable in the morning through this) would open
at regular intervals throughout the day and a guard would check to see
if I was visibly pondering. My only relief was a brief glimpse of sky
and breath of fresh air on the evening walk to the toilet. On the
last day of each week, I would be taken out of the cell for
questioning and asked what I had been thinking about for the past six
Halfway through July, I was subjected to a second session of Thamzing.
Again, I received severe beatings which caused damage to my eyes. By
the time I was dragged back to my cell, I realized that the retina of
my left eye had been detached and the eyeball itself knocked to the
upper left side of its socket. I could no longer focus straight
ahead. I also found that the entire upper row of my teeth had come
loose. Within a month, all my teeth fell out, leaving me with swollen
and bloody gums. My shattered mouth and damaged eye remain a
permanent scar from that particular Thamzing session. In August of
that year, I subjected to an even more intense and brutal Thamzing
I will not trouble you with graphic details of that particular torture
session. However, at the end of it, I had lost all sense of pain. My
only sensation was that of an intense dryness in the mouth. As the
dryness increased, I blacked out and when I regained consciousness, I
was still imagining receiving blows. In reality, I was lying on the
floor of the isolation cell; a bucket of cold water had just been
thrown over my face. When the guards realized that I had revived, they
yanked me to my feet and handcuffed me. Months later, I learned from
my cellmates that when I collapsed, a PLA doctor was summoned, which
was contrary to the medical attention that most Tibetans prisoners
received. The doctor had pronounced that I was on the verge of death
and he therefore refused to take responsibility for my case. Sometime
thereafter, the Thamzing session ceased.
In October 1959, I was among 79 prisoners who were taken to China.
Our journey began in November when we were put in trucks, 38 prisoners
in each truck. We were forced to stand for the entire journey, which
lasted ten days. On the 11th day, we reached Lake Kokonor in
northeast Tibet and we were then transported east, toward Lanzhou, by
train. From Lanzhou, we were split into two groups and my group was
driven north, toward the Gobi desert. We finally reached Jiuzhen
Prison, our destination, which was part of the dreaded gulags the
Chinese had set up in the region. We were huddled together in small,
cramped cells which provided only a foot and a half of space for a
Each day we were led to work in the fields. Guarded by PLA soldiers,
who would shoot any man crossing his field's perimeter, we had to
break enough barren ground daily, including irrigation ditches, to be
suitable for cultivating thirty pounds of wheat. A point system
rewarded those who completed their quota, something a strong man could
barely manage to do. Those who did not were punished. Returning from
the day's labor, we had to undergo political "study sessions" lasting
until 10 p.m. In addition, prisoners were randomly taken for a
full-day of questioning in an attempt to wear them down.
In May of 1960, six months after our arrival in Jiuzhen prison, our
rations were reduced from sixteen and a half to eight and a half
pounds a month. To save yet more grain, the authorities started mixing
indigestible roots and barks with the food.
Hunger governed our every thought. With the beginning of summer, the
first symptom of starvation appeared: extreme enervation. By July, we
all resembled living skeletons. Ribs, hips and shin bones protruded
from our bodies, our chests were concave, our eyes bulged and our
teeth (those who still possessed them) were loose. Gradually our
eyebrows and hair, once shiny and black, turned russet, then beige and
then fell out, the hair coming loose from the skin with just a slight
pull. No one could walk securely. Leg joints felt locked in place,
our feet were dragged along, too heavy to lift. When we returned from
work we literally crashed down, unable to check our fall.
The first death, which had been expected, occurred only a year and a
half later. We did not grieve, however, for we had lost all of our
senses except for an ability to quarrel over food. We now realized
that we were sentenced to die through forced labor, instead of being
executed, so that the authorities could appear blameless. Within just
a few days, the next man died. From then on, an average of two to
three prisoners died every week with the longest interval between
deaths lasting no more than a fortnight.
Death of a fellow prisoner occasionally provided an increase in
rations for a single day at least. The loss could be hidden from
the guards and the deceased's rations obtained. I was able to share
an extra ration with another prisoner through this method when we
found the man lying next to me dead one morning.
As the starvation continued we began to consume our own clothes.
Leather ropes, used to tie the bundles brought from Tibet, were cut
into daily portions with stones and shovels. Each piece was slowly
chewed during work, in the hope that some strength could thereby be
gained. I owned a fur-lined jacket, which had proved invaluable
through the first winter, but in the course of the following summer, I
was compelled to eat it. I began eating the fur. As winter came
again, I managed to roast the rest of my jacket, piece by piece, over
a fire and eat it. The other prisoners and myself also picked many
plants dandelions were a favorite walking to and from the
fields. We also hunted for frogs and insects and dug for worms.
A more constant source of food was the refuse discarded by Chinese
guards. Crowds of prisoners would gather around bones or fruit rinds
thrown by the roadside.
As we were completing our first year in Jiuzhen, I collapsed and was
hospitalized for three months. I recovered quicker than others in the
hospital because I was able to develop a form of self cure. On my
return to work at Jiuzhen, I learned that the death toll had soared.
By October of 1962, only 21 Tibetans had survived. In that month, we
were informed that we would be allowed to return to Tibet.
We were transported to Drapchi, Tibet's foremost prison in Lhasa. I
was placed in a 14-man cell only 16 by 12 feet in dimension. It was
so small that when each prisoner slept head to head in two rows, our
feet hit the walls forcing us to bend our knees. We were forced to
spend every waking hour in study, to confess our faults daily and to
inform on our neighbor. It was at this time that mental breakdowns,
depression and suicidal behavior appeared amongst fellow prisoners.
By this time, I had spent many years in prison, but no formal charge
had been brought against me nor had I received a sentence. It was
only in 1972 nearly 13 years since my arrest that I finally
received my sentence. Although no charges were placed against me, I
was considered an "upper class intelligentsia associated with the
former Tibetan government" and was given a 17 year sentence.
Following my sentencing, I was transferred to a less restrictive
branch of Sangyib prison, also in Lhasa. My "reeducation" being
deemed complete, I was assigned to hard labor in the prison's quarry.
Every day, I was forced to chisel 90 twelve-by-eight-inch stone blocks
from boulders blasted out of the mountainside nearby. I could barely
perform my share of work.
In the next year, a Chinese prison doctor, who was familiar with my
medical knowledge, consulted me on a personal ailment when he learned
that I was in Sangyib prison. The Chinese doctor recovered using my
treatment and before long, I was removed from my cell and sent to work
in Sangyib hospital.
In 1976, having completed my full sentence, I was placed outside of
Sangyib prison although still considered "an enemy of the people". I
was able to practice medicine once more and also started receiving a
small salary for my work at the hospital.
In the meanwhile, direct contact between the Tibetan
Government-in-Exile and the Chinese Government was being established.
As a result, the first-ever fact-finding delegation from Dharamsala
visited Tibet in 1979. That delegation included Mr. Lobsang Samten, a
brother of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. He took up my case with the
Chinese Government and asked them to permit me to visit India. The
process took over a year and it was only in October 1980 that I
finally left for India. I reached Dharamsala in November... [file truncated]